Adverse Health Effects of Palladium

Metal cations in dental alloys such as mercury and palladium are continuously released and accumulate in the kidneys, liver, thyroid, brain, CNS, etc.(1,15). Mercury and palladium have high levels of galvanic current densities when near other metals, with the current densities of Pd alloys approx. 10 times higher than for high noble alloys(16). This causes extensive migration of mercury and palladium to saliva, tooth roots, jaw, gums, and other parts of the body(15,16).

Like mercury, palladium is cytotoxic and kills or damages cells(12,13,14). Palladium also causes considerable damage and degradation of DNA and exacerbates hydroxyl radical damage (13,14). Palladium also damages cell mitochondria and inhibits enzyme activity and function (9,10,11).

Palladium also causes significant numbers of allergic reactions as well as contact dermatitis, stomatitis, lichinoid reactions, and periodontal gum disease(4,5,6,7,8).

Because of its toxicity and high mobility, many cases of palladium poisoning have resultedand palladium in dental alloys has been banned in Switzerland. Likewise the German Health Ministry has been warning dentists since 1993 not to use palladium-copper alloys.

The warning against using palladium alloys came as a result of poisonings and lab tests inGermany that showed the following toxic effects of palladium:

Based on German studies and cases, early symptoms of palladium toxicity include:

increased salivation; pain in teeth and jaw; burning tounge; cold feeling in mouth; metal taste, peeling of mucous membrane around teeth; fungus like coating in throat and sore throat; painful, swollen lymph nodes in the neck; extreme nervousness, extreme tiredness, confusion, memory loss, dizziness, migraine headaches, burning of eyes, allergies, impairment of immune system, blisters on body.

Late symptoms of palladium poisoning include:

dying of the teeth, granulomas, puss pockets with dead tissue, swollen tongue; nerve pain in the face; paralysis of face; muscle cramps of tongue, lips, around eyes; sinus infection, bronchitis and lung ailments without clear reason; difficulty breathing at night; problems with stomach, intestines, liver, bladder, kidneys; weight loss; joint and muscle pain; muscle cramps and weakness; earnoise; visual disturbance; depression, insomnia; outbreaks of sweat, palpitations, difficulty concentrating.


(1) A.Schedle et al, "Response of fibroblasts to various metal cations", J Dent Res, Aug 1995, 74(8):1513-1520.
(2) L. Niemi et al, "In vitro cytotoxicity of Ag-Pd-Cu based alloys", J Biomed Mater Res, May 1985, 19(5):549-561.
(3) S.Takeda et al, "Corrosion behavior of Ag-Pd alloys and its cytotoxicity", shika Zairyo Kikai, Nov 1990, 9(6):825-830.
(4) A.M. Al-roubaie, "Condition of the periodontion of teeth with silver-palladium bridge", Fogorv Sz, Jul 1986, 79(7):207-212.
(5) D. Downey, "Contact mucositis due to palladium", Contact Dermatitis, Jul 1989, 21(1):54.
(6) J.A.Marcusson, "Contact allergies to palladium chloride", Contact Dermatitis, May 1996, 34(5): 320-323.
(7) J.Vilaplana et al, "Adverse oral mucous membrane reactions to dental prostheses", Feb 1994, 30(2): 80-84.
(8) A Henston-Pettersen, "Casting Alloy side effects", Adv Dent Res, Sep 1992,6:38-43.
(9) G.M.Kolesova et al, "Effect of Palladium compounds on mitrochondrial enzymatic systems", Vopr Med Khim, sep 1979, 25(5):537-540.
(10) J.D. Spikes et al, "Enzyme inhibition by palladium", Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1969, 8; 35(3);420-422.
(11) M.D. Shultz et al, "Palladium- a new inhibitor of cellulase enzyme activity", Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Apr 1995, 209(3):1046-1052.
(12) Y Kawata et al, "Cytotoxicity of Pd-Co dental alloys", J Dent Res, Aug 1981, 60(8): 1403- 1409.
(13) T.Z.Liu et al, "Palladium exacerbates hydroxyl radical mediated DNA damage", Free Radic Biol Med, 23(1): 155-161, 1997.
(14) C.K.Pillai et al, "Interaction of palladium with DNA", Biochem Biophys Acta, Jan 1977, 474(1): 11-16.
(15) W.P Bieger et al, "Immunotoxocolgy of metals", Zur Deutshcen Auszahe, 1996.
(16) K.Bonnig et al, "Quantitative analysis of the corrosion rates of palladium alloys", Dtsch Azhnarztl A 45(8):508-510, Aug 1990.

(17) Additional references on allergy to palladium- see following:

van Ketel WG and Niebber C (1981). Allergy to palladium in dental alloys. Contact Dermatitis 7:331.

van Loon LAJ, van Elsas PW, van Joost Th and Davidson CL (1984). Contact stomatitis and dermatitis to nickel and palladium. Contact Dermatitis 11:294-297.

Castelain PY and Castelain M (1987). Contact dermatitis to palladium. Contact Dermatitis 16:46.

Guerra L, Misciali C, Borrello P and Melino M (1988). Sensitization to palladium. Contact Dermatitis 19:306-307.

Camarasa JG, Serra-Baldrich E, Lluch M, Malet A and Garcia Calderon P (1989). Recent unexplained patch test reactions to palladium. Contact Dermatitis 20:388-389.

van Joost Th and Roesyanto-Mahadi ID (1990). Combined sensitization to palladium and nickel. Contact Dermatitis 22:227-228.

Rebandel P and Rudzki E (1990). Allergy to palladium. Contact Dermatitis 23:121-122.

Hackel H, Miller K, Elsner P and Burg G (1991). Unusual combinedsensitization to palladium and other metals. Contact Dermatitis 24:131-132.

Camarasa JG, Burrows D, Menn_ T, Wilkinson JD and Shaw S (1991). Palladium contact sensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 24:370-371.

Todd DJ and Burrows D (1992). Patch testing with pure palladium metal in patients with sensitivity to palladium chloride. Contact Dermatitis 26:327-331.

de Fine Olivarius F and Menn_ T (1992). Contact dermatitis from metallicpalladium in patients reacting to palladium chloride. Contact Dermatitis 27:71-73.

Aberer W, Holub H, Strohal R and Slavicek R (1993). Palladium in dentalalloys -- the dermatologist's responsibility to warn? Contact Dermatitis 28:163-165.

Vilaplana J, Romaguera C and Cornellana F (1994). Contact dermatitis and advers oral mucous membrane reactions related to the use of dental prostheses. Contact Dermatitis 30:80-84.

Uter W, Fuchs Th, H_usser M and Ippen H (1995). Patch test results with serial dilutions of nickel sulfate (with and without detergent), palladium, chloride, and nickel and palladium metal plates. Contact Dermatitis 32:135-142.

Marcusson JA (1996). Contact allergies to nickel sulfate, gold sodiumthiosulfate and palladium chloride in patients claiming side-effects from dental alloy components. Contact Dermatitis 34:320-323.

Santucci B, Cannistraci C, Cristaudo A and Picardo M (1996). Multiple sensitivities to transition metals: the nickel palladium reactions. Contact Dermatitis 35:283-286.

Wahlberg JE and Boman AS (1992). Cross-reactivity to palladium and nickel studied in the guinea pig. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 72:95-97. Lid_n C and Wahlberg JE (1994). Cross-reactivity to metal compounds studied in guinea pigs induced with chromate or cobalt. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh)74