Cut Fluoridation to Preserve Teeth, Yet Another Study Shows
Tooth decay declined substantially in prevalence and severity when Hong Kong children
consumed less fluoride, indicative of a world-wide scientific trend revealing, with fluoride,
less is best; none is better.
In 1988, Hong Kong reduced water fluoride levels from 0.7 parts per million (ppm) to 0.5 ppm. By 1995,
31% fewer 11-year-olds had cavities with a 42% reduction in average cavity rates, according to the
Hong Kong Public Health Bulletin (1). Similar reductions occurred in 1978 when Hong Kong's fluoridation rates
were first cut from 1 ppm to 0.7 ppm (2).
Hong Kong's dental health is superior to the United States' (3), even though U.S. children consume 1 ppm fluoridated
water and brush with 1,000 ppm fluoridated toothpaste. And Hong Kong children use lower concentrated (500 ppm)
fluoridated toothpaste (4).
Evidence that eliminating fluoridation lessens decay:
In New York State, cavities and tooth loss are greater in fluoridated rather
than in non-fluoridated counties (9). In fact, tooth decay crises exist in most, if not all,
large fluoridated U.S. cities (10).
- Seven years after fluoridation ended in LaSalud, Cuba, cavities remained low in 6- to 9-year-olds,
decreased in 10- to 11-year-olds, and significantly decreased in 12- to 13-year-olds, while
caries-free children increased dramatically, according to Caries Research (5).
- East German scientists report, "following the cessation of water fluoridation in the
cities Chemnitz . . . and Plauen, a significant fall
in caries prevalence was observed," according to Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology (6) . . .
Surveys in the formerly-fluoridated towns of Spremberg and Zittau found "caries levels for
the 12-year-olds of both towns significantly decreased... following the cessation of water fluoridation."
- In British Columbia, Canada, "the prevalence of caries decreased over time in the
fluoridation-ended community while remaining unchanged in the fluoridated community,"
reported in Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology (7).
- In 1973, the Dutch town of Tiel stopped fluoridation. Researchers counted decayed, missing,
and filled permanent tooth surfaces (DMFS) of Tiel's 15-year olds, then collected identical
data from never-fluoridated Culemborg. DMFS rates initially increased in Tiel then dipped to
11% of baseline from 1968/69 to 1987/88 while never-fluoridated Culemborg's 15-year-olds had
72% less cavities over the same period, reports Caries Research (8).
Sometimes stopping fluoridation has no effect as in Kuopio, Finland (11), and Durham, North Carolina (12).
Some countries show lower decay rates in less fluoridated villages when compared to higher
fluoridated villages such as in Uganda (13, 14), the Sudan (15) and Ethiopia (15a).
In South Australia, dental examinations of 4800 ten- to fifteen-year-olds' permanent teeth reveal
unexpected results - similar cavity rates whether they drink fluoridated water or not (16).
In the United States, despite living without fluoridated water, rural children's cavity rates equal
those of urban children, who are more likely to drink fluoridated water, according to a large
national government study of over 24,000 U.S. children (17).
And, to add insult to injury, cavity rates doubled (18) after water fluoridation began in Kentucky (19).
(1) Hong Kong Government, Public Health and Epidemiiology Bulletin 1998 -
(2) Chart showing decline cavity rate -
(3) Section 8 -
(5) "Caries prevalence after cessation of water fluoridation in LaSalud, Cuba,"
Caries Research Jan-Feb. 2000 -
(6) "Decline of caries prevalence after the cessation of water fluoridation in the former
East Germany," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, October 2000 -
(7) "Patterns of dental caries following the cessation of water fluoridation," Community Dentistry
and Oral Epidemiology, February 2001 -
(8) "Caries experience of 15-year-old children in The Netherlands after discontinuation of water
fluoridation," Caries Research, 1993 -
(9) "Fluoridation Fails to Reduce New York State's Dental Decay or Expenses as Dentists' Promise," by
Sally Stride, published February 1, 2005 -
(10) "Cavity Crises in Fluoridated Cities" -
(11) "Caries trends 1992-1998 in two low-fluoride Finnish towns formerly with and without
fluoridation," Caries Research, Nov-Dec 2000 -
(12) "The effects of a break in water fluoridation on the development of dental caries and fluorosis,"
Journal of Dental Research, Feb. 2000 -
(15) Clin Oral Investig. 2005 Jan 6; "Severity of dental caries among 12-year-old Sudanese
children with different fluoride exposure," Birkeland JM, Ibrahim YE, Ghandour IA,
Haugejorden O. -
(15a) Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004 Oct, "The relationship between dental caries and
dental fluorosis in areas with moderate- and high-fluoride drinking water in Ethiopia," by
Wondwossen F, Astrom AN, Bjorvatn K, Bardsen A. -
(16) Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, August 2004 Consumption of nonpublic water:
implications for children's caries experience, byArmfield JM, Spencer AJ. -
(17) Journal of Rural Health, Summer 2003, "Oral Health Status of Children and Adolescents by
Rural Residence, United States." by Clemencia M. Vargas, DDS, PhD; Cynthia R. Ronzio, PhD;
and Kathy L. Hayes, DMD, MPH -
(18) "The 2001 Kentucky Childrens Oral Health Survey: findings for children ages 24 to 59 months
and their caregivers," Pediatr Dent. 2003 Jul-Aug; 25(4):365-72 by Hardison JD, Cecil JC,
White JA, Manz M, Mullins MR, Ferretti GA. -
(19) Oral Health Program, Kentucky Department of Public Health, May 2002 -
For more information, contact:
Paul S. Beeber
President & General Counsel
New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation
PO Box 263
Old Bethpage, NY 11804