AUTHOR: Devi PU; Suresh R; Hande MP
TITLE: Effect of fetal exposure to ultrasound on the behavior of the adult mouse.
SOURCE: Radiat Res (QMP), 1995 Mar; 141 (3): 314-7
ABSTRACT: Pregnant Swiss albino mice were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound (3.5 MHz, 65 mW, ISPTP = 1 W/cm2,ISATA = 240 W/cm2) for 10, 20 or 30 min on day 14.5 (fetal period) of gestation. Sham-exposed controls were studied for comparison. Any changes in physiological reflexes (such as pinna detachment, opening of the eyes and development of fur), postnatal mortality and changes in adult behavior (open-field test, dark/bright arena test, hole board test and conditioned-avoidance test) were recorded. No change was observed in the physiological reflexes. The postnatal survival was also not affected significantly by the exposure. However, there were significant alterations in behavior in all three exposed groups as revealed by the decreased locomotor and exploratory activity and the increase in the number of trials needed for learning. These results indicate that ultrasound exposure during the early fetal period can impair brain function in the adult mouse.

AUTHOR: Hande MP; Devi PU
TITLE: Teratogenic effects of repeated exposures to X-rays and/or ultrasound in mice.
SOURCE: Neurotoxicol Teratol (NAT), 1995 Mar-Apr; 17 (2): 179-88
ABSTRACT: Pregnant Swiss mice were exposed to 9 mGy of 70 kVp X-rays or 10 min of ultrasound (3.5 MHz, approximately 65 mW, ISPTP = 1 W/cm2, ISATA = 240 mW/cm2) on Days 6.5 and 11.5 of gestation in four combinations: X-rays on both days (X + X), ultrasound on both days (U + U), X-rays on Day 6.5 postcoitus (PC) and ultrasound on day 11.5 PC(X + U) and ultrasound at 6.5 days PC and X-rays on day 11.5 PC(U + X). Sham-treated controls were maintained for comparison. Effects on prenatal development, postnatal growth and adult behavior were studied. U + U group showed an increase in percent growth retarded fetuses and a nonsignificant increase was seen in the U + X group. Transient growth retardation was observed in all the exposure groups. This is less likely to be of any biological significance as the animals recovered during postweaning period. The postnatal mortality was significantly higher only in the U + U group. In the X + U group, the exploratory activity was affected at 6 months of age. There was a significant change in the locomotor activity with a reduction in the total activity as 3 and 6 months of age in the U + U group. Latency in learning capacity was also noticed in this group. The results indicate that repeated exposures to ultrasound or its combination with X-rays could be detrimental to the embryonic development and can impair adult brain function when administered at certain stages of organogenesis.

TITLE: Prenatal and postnatal consequences in the brain and behavior of rats exposed to ultrasound in utero.
SOURCE: J Ultrasound Med (KBU), 1991 Feb; 10 (2): 69-75
ABSTRACT: As a result of a prior experiment demonstrating damage to the developing cortex of the fetal rat 24 hours after maternal exposure to ultrasound, postnatal consequences of similar exposure on rat behavior were examined. No decrease in postnatal weight or growth rate was found and no significant decrease in cortical thickness was present postnatally at 28 days. In two of four behavioral tests, rats exposed to ultrasound in utero resembled similarly treated controls. In one test, ultrasound-exposed rats showed slower performance, and in one, faster performance. These data provide no consistent evidence that ultrasound exposure resulted in deleterious postnatal effects.