AUTHOR: Devi PU; Suresh R; Hande MP
TITLE: Effect of fetal exposure to ultrasound on the behavior of
the adult mouse.
SOURCE: Radiat Res (QMP), 1995 Mar; 141 (3): 314-7
ABSTRACT: Pregnant Swiss albino mice were exposed to diagnostic
ultrasound (3.5 MHz, 65 mW, ISPTP = 1 W/cm2,ISATA = 240
W/cm2) for 10, 20 or 30 min on day 14.5 (fetal period) of
gestation. Sham-exposed controls were studied for
comparison. Any changes in physiological reflexes (such as
pinna detachment, opening of the eyes and development of
fur), postnatal mortality and changes in adult behavior
(open-field test, dark/bright arena test, hole board test
and conditioned-avoidance test) were recorded. No change was
observed in the physiological reflexes. The postnatal
survival was also not affected significantly by the
exposure. However, there were significant alterations in
behavior in all three exposed groups as revealed by the
decreased locomotor and exploratory activity and the
increase in the number of trials needed for learning. These
results indicate that ultrasound exposure during the early
fetal period can impair brain function in the adult mouse.
AUTHOR: Hande MP; Devi PU
TITLE: Teratogenic effects of repeated exposures to X-rays and/or
ultrasound in mice.
SOURCE: Neurotoxicol Teratol (NAT), 1995 Mar-Apr; 17 (2): 179-88
ABSTRACT: Pregnant Swiss mice were exposed to 9 mGy of 70 kVp X-rays
or 10 min of ultrasound (3.5 MHz, approximately 65 mW, ISPTP
= 1 W/cm2, ISATA = 240 mW/cm2) on Days 6.5 and 11.5 of
gestation in four combinations: X-rays on both days (X + X),
ultrasound on both days (U + U), X-rays on Day 6.5
postcoitus (PC) and ultrasound on day 11.5 PC(X + U) and
ultrasound at 6.5 days PC and X-rays on day 11.5 PC(U + X).
Sham-treated controls were maintained for comparison.
Effects on prenatal development, postnatal growth and adult
behavior were studied. U + U group showed an increase in
percent growth retarded fetuses and a nonsignificant
increase was seen in the U + X group. Transient growth
retardation was observed in all the exposure groups. This is
less likely to be of any biological significance as the
animals recovered during postweaning period. The postnatal
mortality was significantly higher only in the U + U group.
In the X + U group, the exploratory activity was affected at
6 months of age. There was a significant change in the
locomotor activity with a reduction in the total activity as
3 and 6 months of age in the U + U group. Latency in
learning capacity was also noticed in this group. The
results indicate that repeated exposures to ultrasound or
its combination with X-rays could be detrimental to the
embryonic development and can impair adult brain function
when administered at certain stages of organogenesis.
TITLE: Prenatal and postnatal consequences in the brain and
behavior of rats exposed to ultrasound in utero.
SOURCE: J Ultrasound Med (KBU), 1991 Feb; 10 (2): 69-75
ABSTRACT: As a result of a prior experiment demonstrating damage to
the developing cortex of the fetal rat 24 hours after
maternal exposure to ultrasound, postnatal consequences of
similar exposure on rat behavior were examined. No decrease
in postnatal weight or growth rate was found and no
significant decrease in cortical thickness was present
postnatally at 28 days. In two of four behavioral tests,
rats exposed to ultrasound in utero resembled similarly
treated controls. In one test, ultrasound-exposed rats
showed slower performance, and in one, faster performance.
These data provide no consistent evidence that ultrasound
exposure resulted in deleterious postnatal effects.